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Its aim is to prepare the ground for detailed research on the themes and issues that underlay the dynamic of the ear- liest attempts at mass communication, including the multidirectional nature of news within and beyond Europe, the routes by which information travelled, the roles of particular authors, translators, illustrators, publishers and printers, and the political control and the consumption of the press by individual and collective audiences and readers.
This very nearly first word on the subject is not, and cannot pretend to be, anything like the last. For reasons set out in Appendix II, I use the term relation as a synonym for news pamphlet. In general, when quoting the titles of news pamphlets, I do not cite them in full and I do not indicate my shortening of titles with ellipses. In quoting or referring to secondary literature, I include the full titles of books and articles only the first time they are mentioned, thereafter giving only the surname s of the author s and the year of publication of the item.
The full titles are repeated in the Bibliography. Letters, Posts, the earliest European Press T hroughout medieval and early modern Europe the diffusion of information via networks of official and private correspondence was crucial to people who exer- cised power and influence — rulers, administrators, soldiers, churchmen, bankers, merchants In early modern Europe the news came to stay in a numberless variety of forms.
One fact in particular, however, brought about a qualitative change in communication in the last third of the fifteenth century: the beginning of the mass diffusion of information and opinion via the printing press. Thanks to the press, news became, for the first time, the raw material for a mechanised, mass-producing industry, one that could satisfy the political and personal motives of those who provided the copy and could stimulate the curiosity and the needs of the unprecedentedly substantial public who consumed it, as well as offering the possibility of a livelihood to those who worked in the printing shops and to those who distributed and sold their wares.
To most of the populace at large, news may have been less than crucial, but its diffusion via the printing press made it ever more available, and its availability made 1 See Raymond, ed. It was publication that turned news into the press, trans- forming the intended individual addressee of a private letter into an anonymous mass readership and audience of industrially produced media.
Far more than private correspondence, or the handwritten copies of newsletters produced in specialist offices, the news that came off the presses helped to mould public opinion with unmatched speed, and on a scale previously unimaginable. By the sixth century BC, the Persian Empire had organised a long- range relay system for transporting information, setting up staging posts for couriers to change horses. With the Roman Empire, heavy investment in international communication was made in the form of road building and in the postal service known as the cursus publicus that joined the various provinces and also catered for the movement of goods.
The epistles of Cicero, Pliny and Seneca attest to the high status that the writing of letters acquired as a literary genre, alongside the no less highly valued art of rhetoric. Letter writing was taught as a specific skill in Classical, medieval and Renaissance times, and it has flourished nearly up to the present day. And some well-established newspaper titles — The Daily Mail, The Telegraph, The Washington Post, to name but three — still stress the logistics involved in getting the news to their readers, even if the mechanisms that they refer to now sound somewhat dated.
Correspondence, national and international, flourished in the early years of the printing press. The phenomenon is epitomised by such compulsive letter writers as Erasmus, whose extant epistles fill a dozen volumes. Mitchell, eds. Vicent Baydal Sala discusses municipal correspondence, going back to the 14th c. Allen, ed. Erasmi Roterodami, 12 vols. And, in that sense, Erasmus was by no means unique. At the end of the fifteenth century, the Tuscan businessman Francesco Datini declared that he had spent the whole of his life corresponding with his agents in cities scattered across Europe.
Regier in his review of vols. Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, C. Vollrath, Mario Infelise has amply documented the importance in Italy of the avvisi a mano, copied by professional scribes who in Venice were known as reportisti, in Rome as menanti, and in Genoa as novellari. Most of these letters ran to numerous editions, despite the fact that the anonymous author repeatedly makes a show of exhorting his equally anonymous correspondent to make sure his missives did not fall into the hands of printers.
Bethencourt and F. Egmond, Cambridge University Press, , The improved postal and commercial routes were exploited, amongst many other things, in order to support an increasingly thriving international book trade which would also favour the export and import of news in oral, handwritten and, most especially, printed form. Some writings of this kind, however, were published as early as the middle of the previous century.
Written by the postmaster of the Republic of Genoa, the book was reprinted repeatedly. The road map below Fig. Thus, official or royal or extraordinary posts could be expected to be far more efficient and speedier than ordinary posts, but they were also far more expensive. This is highlighted by Jean-Pierre Seguin, who notes an account of the taking of Tournehan, near Calais, dated 15 August that was printed at Rouen only a fortnight later.
An even more impressive performance is also recorded by Seguin: an occasionnel written in Basel on 15 February that claims to have been translated from German into French and printed at Lyon only two days later. But a prize of some kind should surely go to Jean Lhomme, the Rouen printer who, in a relation published on 25 June , includes news dated that very 19 See Serra I am most grateful to Alastair Duke for this and several other references to Dutch pamphlet publication. See also his 'A Legend in the Making.
Pollmann and A. Spicer, Aldershot, Ashgate, , By , printing presses had been set up in well over two hundred cities throughout the continent. The best financed and most ambitious presses were capa- ble of producing costly and handsomely printed books, but they, and especially the very many lesser presses throughout Europe, also brought out products that involved far less investment in manpower, paper and ink.
Andrew Pettegree cites the case of the Lyon publisher, Benoist Rigaud, who, in the second half of the sixteenth century, was responsible for producing over a thousand editions of news pamphlets, many of which reported on the French Wars of Religion and on the attempts to contain the Turks in central Europe and the Mediterranean, as well as on natural disasters, such as floods and other catastrophes. Andrew Pettegree calculates at around , the number of editions of all the books and pamphlets printed in Europe prior to of which copies survive.
That would imply that, on average, just over four copies of each edition have been preserved. The fact that an average print run, for books and for pamphlets, was somewhere between 1, and 1, copies makes it clear just how incredibly easy it was for the vast majority of editions to disappear in their entirety and without trace. What is more, the kinds of printed matter most dramatically destined to total extinction included, by their very nature, precisely those that we shall be dealing with, namely cheap, occasional, ephemeral prints, such as broadsides and news pamphlets.
For pamphlets the figure is even lower. Assuming doubtless gene- rously that the number of editions of which copies have survived represents as much as a tenth of the total number of editions produced, we should be thinking in 36 Pettegree It should be noted that the figure dates back to the first edition of that book, published in The scale of production of the early news industry is very hard to appreciate today, not least because news pamphlets were short items that were cheap to reset in type in order to produce new editions if particular publications turned out to be especially suc- cessful.
Because new editions were generally word-for-word resettings, it often takes a considerable effort to differentiate one edition from another. The probabilities are that well over twenty edi- tions of that particular pamphlet were published, with a total of at least 20, copies printed.
Furthermore, in some cases, notably reports of monsters, crimes and natural disasters — as we shall see in chapter 7 — the same story could be resuscitated and reoffered, years later, by canny printers as the very latest news. Private collections doubtless include more than the 18 copies and the 9 editions known at present. Thereafter, the extant material indicates a gradual increase in production in the first half of the sixteenth century, a growing impetus in the second half and then, for the most part, a much greater output from the final decade of the century onwards.
The USTC contains details of newsletters that indicate the number of surviving editions in each language that have been catalogued. To judge by the data provided by Tullio and Sandro Bulgarelli, the production of avvisi a stampa in Italy reached a peak between and , a feature that coincides closely with what we know about the Spanish relaciones de sucesos. The Early Study of Early European News Pamphlets Roughly half a century ago — the simultaneity would appear to have been for- tuitous — several important works, most of them bibliographies, were published on the earliest news pamphlets printed in England, France, Italy and Spain.
The major breakthrough in the study of the earliest English newsletters was made widely available in the s, when M. In the case of France, too, we find that pioneering work was also published in the s: notably, two books by Jean-Pierre Seguin. Naissance du fait divers, n. Seventy years later, Georges Weill devotes just over four pages to the pre-periodical printed news Le Journal.
Far more recently, the texts of 63 canards have been published in Lever Avvisi a stampa e periodici italiani conservati nelle biblioteche romane, Rome, Bulzoni Editore, Both of these bibliographies are based solely on the holdings of libraries in Rome. It is, therefore, hardly surprising that they did not all adhere to the same criteria. Huarte, ed. Jahrhundert, Leipzig, We should also mention the Low Countries. The vast majority of them were printed in Antwerp, the next most important centre of production being Amsterdam, followed by Delft. Of the total, over half came out in Dutch, over a quarter in French, and one tenth in Latin.
As regards formats, roughly the same number were printed in octavo as in quarto. The earliest pamphlets listed were nearly all printed in Antwerp, almost all of them in Dutch, and they were predominantly in octavo. The majority cover military and political news.
One of the main reasons why that is the case is, no doubt, the fact that the pre-periodical press in the different languages and countries goes by very different names. These pamphlets are generally referred to as newsletters or news books in England, as occasionnels or canards in France, as avvisi a stampa in Italy, as relaciones de sucesos in Spain, and as Flugschriften or Neue Zeitungen in Germany. They were, almost in their entirety, one-off products that owed their existence to the initiative of a printer or a publisher who acquired access to actual or supposed eye-witness or official accounts of what he or she con- sidered to be newsworthy events whose publication seemed likely to represent a money-making proposition.
Roman type began to become common from early in the sixteenth century, especially for printing books in Latin, but only slowly for works in the vernaculars, including ballads and news pamphlets. Gothic type was still predominant in France and Spain up to the late sixteenth century, and in England up to the beginning of the seventeenth, when it was still used for the first corantos in the s.
The format of newsletters varied considerably from one country to another. German Flugschriften were nearly always printed in quarto, Spanish relaciones in quarto or folio, Italian avvisi, English newsletters and Dutch news pamphlets in quarto or octavo,62 and French occasionnels and canards, at first in small quarto, but then, in the sixteenth century, in small octavo. As for length, Italian avvisi and Spanish relaciones were usually either four or eight pages long, whilst the French occasionnels mostly ran to either eight or sixteen pages, especially when printed in octavo.
In Germany Flugschriften varied normally between four and sixteen pages, the commonest length being eight. As for England, newsletters generally ran from eight to twenty-four pages or more. In between the title at the top of the page and the place, printer and date of publication usually at the bottom, first pages very often used woodcuts to fill the middle of the page. The images displayed vary 61 For France, see Seguin Front page of a French occasionnel reporting the brilliant French victory over Papal and Spanish troops at Ravenna in and the death of the French commander, Gaston de Foix-Nemours.
Scenes of action 66 See Seguin First page of a Spanish news pamphlet Valencia, bearing the text of a letter from the commander of the Spanish galleys to the viceroy of Valencia. The use of the royal coat of arms to indicate an official Spanish document was to continue well into the following century.
The woodcut frame and the decorated capital C are reminiscent of illuminated manuscripts Biblioteca del Palau, Peralada. It also appea- red printed on one side of single sheets. They generally employed engra- vings, sometimes made especially to illustrate their content, with German printers, in particular, manufacturing products that dramatically highlighted their visual impact with sophisticated figures or scenes that usually filled the top third or half of the page, the bottom being occupied by a text in prose or in verse Fig.
Their subject mat- ter is often similar to that of the pamphlets — especially battles, monsters and natural disasters. Questions of layout and illustration are discussed in more detail in the captions attached to the reproductions of broadsides and news pamphlets throughout this book and in Appendix III. Dooley and S. A German broadside, or Flugblatt, printed at Augsburg in , with a lengthy account and a woodcut evidently made to order to illustrate the news given here of conjoined twins with two heads and three arms Zentralbibliothek, Zurich.
The impact of broadsides was, first and fore- most, visual. It was also, in fact primarily, a song to be sung, or an image to be pasted on the wall. Indeed, in the s, in the flea market in Madrid, peddlers of 82 Watt Wilkinson makes the same point about the low survival rate of printed ballads in France. But there was also, for the most part, a difference in content, with news- letters mainly in prose including a very wide range of topics, and broadsides very often in verse concentrating on the whole on sensational news.
Illustrated with a large woodcut by Alardo de Popma, it provides details of the artil- lery pieces captured and of the most significant dead and wounded. Una historia social de la escritura en los Siglos de Oro, Madrid, Akal, Whilst it would be splendid to be able to track precisely how the concept of news fit to be printed came to be established at the start of the printing revolution, we are greatly hampered by not even beginning to be able to estimate to what extent the rare early news pamphlets still extant reflect anything like the entire picture.
At the beginning of the USTC listed extant incunable news pamphlets for the whole of Europe. However, they do not include all of the incunable pamphlets that are known to have survived — for a start, no pamphlets printed in Spain are mentioned. None the less, it is certainly worth taking note of what the principal news stories are that those first news pamphlets carry. The main topics — and this was to continue to be the case — are war and the public activities of rulers. As Margaret Meserve has shown, amongst the earliest news pamphlets to be published in Italy, just as the printing revolution began to get under way there, were more than a dozen known texts that, within months of the capture of Negroponte by the Turks in July , commented on, analysed or lamented the disaster that had befallen that Venetian colony.
For decades such ballads had been recited or sung to live audiences in Italian city squares, sometimes by the poet himself, sometimes by a professional crier cantastorie, cante- rino, cantambanco , sometimes by a peddler cerretano, ciurmatore who might also sell paper copies of the text alongside his usual stock of devotional images, patent medicines, and charms. However, it is not so much the account of a battle as an appeal to the conscience of good Christian rulers to support the onslaught on the Turks Fig.
The news in Latin largely followed the practice of news communication in the pre-printing age, when, apart from oral ballad-type kinds of popularising information intended for a general public, hard news was primarily aimed at an elite of educated readers who used Latin to communicate internationally. However, vernacular printed news pamphlets were to become the 91 See Meserve Meserve id. For the impact of peddled pamphlets on Venetian culture in our period, see Rosa Salzberg, Ephemeral City.
The doings of rulers are prominent in the printed news virtually from the begin- ning, including their signing of peace treaties, such as the one agreed by Louis XI and the Archduke of Austria in , and so too are reports of geographical discovery. As Robert Burton made clear, a century and a half after the first known printed news appea- red, it had become comparable to what we understand by news today: information about a very broad range of current events that were thought to be, or were made to appear, significant.
The events that became news, then as now, can be described as happenings that are either half expected or fall within an accepted repertoire of newsworthy occurrences, or else can be presented, on the contrary, as breaking the established order by virtue of being either marvellously or horrifically unexpected. They can also be described as favouring the powers that be, or else, at least at first sight, as challenging the established order.
Within the former category, we could include news about royalty or reports of battles which are, almost without exception, accounts of victories ; within the latter, plots, murder, witchcraft and heresy. By the time Burton is writing, news stories in the non-periodical press concern everything from war to sport, from miracles to martyrdoms, from royal weddings to natural disasters, from crime to entertainment.
News was, as always, inevitably determined by the circumstances of the time. Thus, it was powerfully coloured by ideological conflict — predominantly, between Catholics and Protestants, Christians and Muslims — and by the competing interests of rival political powers.
Dominated by the reporting of war and by events that involved church and state, news was inevitably propagandistic, and it had its media heroes — headed by princes, churchmen and generals — and its media villains, including enemies, traitors, infidels, heretics, sinners and common criminals. What is more, in the age of discovery, the press opened up new worlds for its European consumers, as well as carrying news from Europe and beyond to the colonies.
The opinions expressed in the news pamphlets represented the Establishment. The press did not just pretend to provide information, but structured reality, with a view to astonishing, sermonising or shocking its readers and listeners. And, although scarcely a single history of literature so much as mentions them, news pamphlets and broadsides were doubtless amongst the most widely read kinds of printed matter, much as newspapers are today.
The extent to which the news printed across Europe was, in broad terms, of a kind becomes clear if we compare the results expressed in works that deal with the press 97 Seguin deals at some length with the question of propaganda in French occasionnels. As regards England, in M. Collins catalogued a total of newsletters, in whose production almost entirely in London over a hundred printers and booksellers were involved. See also Joop W.
Over extant English news pamphlets published before the Civil War are translations, with roughly dealing with war and with peace negotiations, about with the affairs of sovereigns and around 60 with sensational news see S. Thus, Seguin lists eight different extant occasionnels on the French conquest of Genoa in , ten on battles against the Venetians in , eleven on military operations in Italy in , eleven more on the capture of Thionville in , and ten on the taking of Calais from the English that same year. For their part, French canards correspond to one variety of English newsletters, See Shaaber As regards the content of the printed avvisi, he makes it clear that in the sixteenth century they provided news from the entire known world, the topics that he highlights being: battles, conspiracies, festivities, royal weddings, treaties, trials, geographical discovery, natural events and miracles.
War looms very large in the avvisi a stampa, in particular the Turkish threat to Christendom, the struggle between Spain and France for supremacy in Europe, and the wars between Catholics and Protestants. One particularly active publisher of avvisi in Rome in the last decade of the sixteenth century, Bernardino Beccari, produced a spate of newsletters on the wars against the Turks in Transylvania, many of which were translated and published elsewhere.
To be sure, very few relaciones de sucesos deal with conspiracies or lawsuits, and most of the Spanish accounts of voyages of discovery — like most of those published elsewhere — are book-length, rather than newsletters. The topics she specifies are: international politics, war, social affairs such as royal weddings, royal births and official celebrations , fires, miracles, bloody crimes and the weather by which, no doubt, she meant foul weather, such as hurricanes and floods. Few of the authors whose names are given are known to be the authors of more than one or two items.
In fact, for the most part, it seems clear that news pamphlets were written by people who did not regard themselves principally as purveyors of news. Many of them were persons in positions of authority, often in the army or the church, or else more ordinary indivi- duals who, once or twice in their lives, discovered that they had a news story to tell that they happened to have witnessed.
Such, for instance, is the case of Juan Serrano de Vargas, a native of Salamanca and one of the most prolific printers in Seville of news pamphlets between and Rome and Venice marked the commonest starting points in Europe for the spread of news from the east, and Italian was the language in which such reports usually first appeared, with translations into German, French, Spanish, English, etc.
In the last quarter of the sixteenth century, some news from China was published in England translated from Spanish. Translated out of the Castlyn tongue, by T. N London, ? One such reports the canonisation of a Spanish saint and was published in Rome in , no doubt intended for sale to Spaniards who attended the cere- monies at the Vatican and perhaps also for export to Spain. Censoring, Selling and Reading the News The fact that, from the beginning of the sixteenth century, news pamphlets were generally subject to a greater or lesser degree of governmental or ecclesiastical control made it possible for their readers, and for those who listened to them read or recited, to regard those texts that were published with official approval as autho- ritative, or at least not contrary to the interests of the powers that approved them.
In Pope Alexander VI published the bull Inter multiplices, which laid down the requirement for works to be censored prior to publication. His lead was followed in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella the following year for all kinds of texts, whether long or short, and the Inquisition was thereafter to control censorship with increasing eagerness and efficiency. A true relation brought by the Lord of Buisson, and sent by the French King concerning the defeat of the Lord Soubizes army, his Maiestie being there in person […], supposedly published in Paris in It is, therefore, instructive to examine just how the pre-periodical press advertised itself.
Weller describes of those published between and that include the term Neue Zeitung in their titles, most of which went into several editions. The vast majority use the term Neue Zeitung without adding any kind of qualifier. Whereas it could be thought that Neue Zeitung implies the latest news, it seems more likely that it was taken to mean simply new i. Tidings from. Thus, in , the Nuremberg printer Jobst Gutknecht was putting out a Flugschrift entitled, in one edition, Neue warhaffte gezeittung, and, in another, Ein newe warhafftige gezeyttung.
First page of an account, received from Antwerp, of English participation in Italy in the course of the Italian War of For the most part, those Neue Zeitungen listed by Weller up to that do not introduce into their titles the notion of truthfulness, or stick with the bare expression Amongst these variations, we can name the following: Gewise [i. As for the Netherlands, whilst titles beginning Nyeuwe tydinge are common from at least onwards, that same year we also find the claim to truth being included, as in Warachtige nieuwe tiding and in Gherechtighe copie van der nieuwer tijdinghe, both printed in Antwerp.
Almost simultaneously, it appears, we find Nouvelles standing in titles as a sub- stantive. Pre occasionnels that qualify Nouvelles are: Nouvelles bonnes […] venues dorient Rouen, , Les tristes nouvelles de Rome Lyon, , Nouvelles certaines des Isles du Peru Lyon, and Espovantable nouvelle Paris, From around , the chief claims are to truth or to brevity, but the majority of titles use no adjective. The next comparable items listed by Bulgarelli are Nuovo aviso del piu horrendo et miserabil Diluvio , Aviso nuovamente venuto di Costantinopoli , Novi avisi venuti da Messina and Ultimi avisi Venuti da da Messina see Bulgarelli 78, Frances E.
Dolan investigates in great detail how the question of truth is presented in English relations see True Relations. Sommaia traded news with a profusion of correspondents across Europe and received handwritten gazettes, and manuscript and printed rela- tions, from Italy and elsewhere, including news of the Gunpowder Plot and the trou- bles in Ireland. Tessa Watt cites examples of itinerant book peddlars who sold ballads in remote parts of the English countryside. Besides, some library holdings suggest that there were contemporaries who made a habit of collecting them.
As for specific instances, a unique collection of sixteen Valencian relaciones dating from the s and s, now in the library of Peralada Castle, near Figueres, can hardly have been put together much later than the time that they were published, and the same goes for a collection of over a hundred relaciones printed in Barcelona nearly a century later and housed at the Biblioteca Nacional in Lisbon.
In particular, we shall highlight the kinds of news stories that reached readers and listeners in several different countries and, most especially, the prevalence of virtually identical information provided by the publication of translations. Births, Journeys, Marriages, Festivities, Deaths T hroughout early modern Europe festivals and ceremonies accompanied city life throughout the year. In Catholic countries, every town and village, every profession and occupation, celebrated the day of its patron saint. Most festivities were fixed events, part of the church calendar, but others occurred on special or unplanned occasions, such as births, marriages, visits and the deaths of monarchs and, in Catholic countries, beatifications, canonisations and the acquisition of relics.
Church and state discovered very early on that the press provided possibilities for disseminating suitably chosen and presented information on a scale previously inconceivable, and they were not slow to exploit the new technology. News that featured rulers represents most clearly the crucial role of the press in promoting the public image of secular power. Barcelona , ed. Thus the press became a crucial adjunct to the prestige of power, turning Renaissance and Baroque ceremonial into widely diffused news, eternalising the ephemeral details of decorations, dress, church services, processions, triumphal arches, elaborate carriages, illuminations, firework displays and tournaments.
Some aspects of courtly and even religious ceremonial were often covered in their own right, such as tourneys and jousts. A tournament put on by Charles V in Augsburg in that began on Corpus Christi, is described at length in a French Relation de la tournee excellente tenuee par la maieste de lempereur: en la cite impe- rialle. Dauspourg, a pamphlet that has a woodcut of the Crucifixion under the title on its first page, whose appropriateness is not immediately apparent.
Proposte per gli mantenitori, con tutto l'ordine di essa giostra, cosa stupenda da udire, tanto per le grandissime ricchezze, quanto per l'infinito popolo ivi radunato USTC The literature on Renaissance and Baroque festivals is huge, but Strong encapsulates the essential points. Copia de vna letra venida de la Corte Donde cuenta toda la cerimonia que ha passado en el Baptismo del Principe nuestro S.
Barcelona, The book-length account of the festivities put on to celebrate the birth was: Relacion de las fiestas que la imperial ciudad de Toledo hizo al nacimiento del principe N. The baptism also inspired a page book published in Milan in on the festivities held there: Feste di Milano Nel felicissimo nascimento del Serenissimo principe di Spagna Don Filippo Dominico Vittorio.
The page is dominated by the woodcut of the Spanish royal coat of arms, very much in the style of official Spanish relaciones of the period cp. Both couples were under age at the time, but the marriage contracts were signed amidst public rejoicing in , giving rise to profuse relaciones describing the costly and colourful ceremonies performed in Madrid and in Paris and the celebrations held in Naples and Messina.
Huntington Library and Art Gallery. Amongst the news pamphlets published that year in London in honour of the marriage were at least three, whose elegantly wordy titles described the entertainments put on for the royal couple, as well as a mock sea battle and firework displays and the brilliant reception offered to them on landing on the Continent, the first of them written by the poet and com- poser Thomas Campion.
Anderas [i. In England the possibility that Charles might marry the infanta was the subject of heated controversy, and the successive accounts of his splendid reception at the Spanish court that crossed the Channel ran alongside unofficial news and rumour concerning the difficulties that stood in the way of the match, given that the pope and the Spanish Crown insisted that Charles would have to convert to Catholicism. A facsimile edition was published in Boston by the Massachusetts Historical Society in Raymond notes that the accident also prompted the circulation of ballads and poetic exercises among students.
The accession of new sovereigns and their ceremonial reception by the people provided, by definition, news of national and international interest. First page of a relation printed in Dutch at Antwerp in , whose title can be translated as: About the assemblies of princes, counts and lords in Frankfurt to elect the King of the Romans.
And how the king was crowned and anointed at Aachen and what great state and magnificence took place there. Homenaje al Profesor Klaus Wagner, ed. A large number of avvisi on the journey appeared in Rome and Ferrara. Bonner Mitchell notes that the earliest livret i. Bonner Mitchell provides an account of the festivities in Ferrara, together with facsimiles of some of the relevant news pamphlets. Dutch relations on her entry into Ferrara were published in Delft and in Amsterdam, as well as in Antwerp. One, published in Brussels in , summarised her travels through Italy.
Margherita, N. Phillip the III. The quenes maiesties passage through the citie of London to Westminster the daye before her coronacion. A royal progress performed by her nearly twenty years later is recorded in two newslet- ters printed in See also Shaaber Detailed depiction of features and clothes in the superb handsomely coloured engraving in a Flugblatt on the embassy from Moscow that was received by the Holy Roman Emperor in Regensburg in , with a commen- tary in verse below Zentralbibliothek, Zurich.
The Muscovite embassy to the Holy Roman Emperor in was commemorated in a spectacularly illustrated Flugblatt which portrays the features and the attire of the seven ambassadors in convincing detail and briefly tells the story of the event in verse Fig. An Italian report published in Bologna spoke of the funeral service held in Brussels, as did one published in Cremona in , and one printed in Milan reported on the ceremonies For the first item, see Shaaber A copy of the second, at British Library, Diego de Yepes, printed by Plantin and Mourentorf in Antwerp in , and in a Dutch translation of the same account, printed at Rotterdam.
Mitsgaders d'overeveringhe syns rijcx USTC The title is elegantly laid out, entirely in roman capitals, with the opening words highlighted in larger italic, and accompanied by an engraving of a crowned eagle Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rome. In addition, Shaaber mentions a pamphlet entitled The secret Last Instructions that king Philip the Second […] Left to his son Kinge Philip the Third […] conteining howe to governe him self after his fathers Death.
Such was the case of Selim II, who died in November , an event recorded and illustrated in a Flugblatt published the following year in Strasbourg which claims that the Turkish sultan had been poisoned, together with his five sons Fig. Whilst nearly all festivities were organised by the ecclesiastical and civil administrations, carnival typically implied tension between popular celebration of pre-Lenten license — feasting and drinking, the wearing of masks, role reversal, social rule-breaking, etc.
A virtually annual event was the publication of avvisi in Rome giving accounts of the carnival feasts of Agone and Testazzo, held in February, the earliest examples catalogued by Tullio Bulgarelli dating from Vncle to the Count Palatine. The death of the Turkish Sultan Selim II and also, supposedly, of his five sons, illustrated in a dramatic Flugblatt, printed at Strasbourg in , which highlights, in the background, the Cathedral of St Sophia and the gate to the seraglio Zentralbibliothek, Zurich.
Whilst the Spanish match was, in the end, a non-event, it was emblematic of public celebration. Quod Disturbava, et Qui exercitu lustrato, quum Arretium versus castra movisset, et contra Hannibalem legiones duceret et ipse et equus ejus ante signum Jovis Statoris sine causa repente concidit, nec eam rem habuit religioni; objecto 28 signo, ut peritis videbatur, ne committeret proelium. Idem quum tripudio 29 auspicaretur, pullarius diem proelii committendi 30 differebat.
Tum Flaminius ex eo quaesivit, si ne postea quidem pulii pascerentur, quid faciendum censeret. Quum ille quiescendum respondisset : Flaminius, " Praeclara vero " auspicia, si esurientibus pullis res geri poterit, saturis nibil " geretur. Quo tempore, quum signifer primi hastati 32 signum non posset movere 33 loco, nec quidquam proficeretur, plures quum accederent 35 34 Flaminius, re nuntiata, suo more neglexit itaque tribus iis horis concisus exercitus, atque ipse interfectus est.
Magnum 36 illud etiam, quod addidit Caelius,eo tempore ipso, quum hoc calamitosum fieret proelium, tantos terrae motus in Liguribus, Oallia, compluribusque insulis, totaque in Italia factos esse, ut multa oppida corruerint, multis locis labes 37 factae sint terraeque desederint, fluminaque in contrarias partis fluxerint, ; ; : atque in amnis mare influxerit 38, Magna cae vulnere. Objecto signo. Idem quum tripudio auspicaretur. Ita aliquoties Livius, ut iii.
Quinctium consulem reficiebant. Se sequi jussit. Signifer pruni hastati. Plures quum accederent. Re nuntiata. Adde B. Tribus iis horis. At Davisius piane pronomen delevit. Quod addidit Caelius. Infra proelium omnibus fere libris deest, ubi alio ordine scribi! Labes factae sint. Fluxerint — Fasti- influxerit. Quid amores ac deliciae tuae, Roscius? Atque hanc speciem Pasiteles 44 : Quid caelavit argento, et noster expressit Archias versibus.
Non videmus, quam sint varia terrarum genera? Divinationum conjecturae. Distinctionem autem recte mutavit Davisius, ut jungendum sit Platoni consedis. Provisa in infante est. Pro futura matura vel maturi: sed nil mutandum. Ceterum in infante interpretaberis, arbitror, ad proprietatem voeo qui nondum ne fari quidem prov.
Praxiteles : emendavitWinckelmann. Terrae vis. Quae videmus. Igitur, quoniam neutrum nec vidimus nec videmus, utrobique aptum esse potest, codicum potius lectionem sequendam puto. Fit etiam saepe specie quadam, saepe vocum gravitate 49 cantibus, ut pellantur animi vehementius saepe etiam cura et 50 qualis est illa et timore : : Flexanima tamquam lymphata aut Bacchi Commota, sacris Teucrum commemorans suum.
2990982 Voltaire Dictionar Filozofic Volumul II 2
Equidem etiam in te saepe vidi, et 54 familiari tuo tantum ardo ut ad leviora veniamus in Aesopo rem vultuum atque motuum, ut eum vis quaedam abstraxisse a sensu mentis videretur. Objiciuntur etiam saepe formae, quae reapse 55 nullae sunt; speciem autem offerunt quod contigisse Brenno 50 dicitur, ejusque Gallicis copiis, quum fano Apollinis Delphici nefarium bellum intulisset tum enim ferunt ex oraculo ecfatam esse Pythiam, : : Ego providebo rem istam, et albae virgines Ex quo factum, ut et viderentur virgines ferre arma contra, et 58 exercitus.
Vocum gravitate et cantibus. Qualis est illa. Versus autem sunt Pacuvii vide Varr. Sine furore. Quem :. In Phaedro Platonis. Minervam et Dianam. Supra et post ut frustra delevit Davisius. Quam quidem integri, non vitiosi corporis est divinatio. Non 61 igitur sunt dii, nec significant futura.
Sunt autem dii significant ergo. Hac ratione et Chrysippus, et Diogenes, et Anti- Quid pater utitur. An, dum bestiae loquantur, exspectamus? Nec vero quidquam aliud adfertur cur ea, quae dico, divinandi genera nulla sint, nisi quod difficile dictu videtur, quae cujusque divinationis ratio, quae causa sit. Quid enim habet 64 haruspex, cur pulmo incisus etiam in bonis extis diri Aristoteles Locus est,. Generique hominum amici. Mox neque ignorant ea : secundus delet ea. Non igitur sunt dii, nec.
Nec, si da? Verissuma, si candide runt? An, dum? Si condiderunt ; an, dum? Quid enim habet haruspex. Cur fiat quidque, quaeris. Ree te omnino sed non nunc id agitur fiat necne fiat 67 , id quaeritur. Quod idem facis in divinatone, quam et cernimus ipsi, et audimus, et legimus, et a patribus accepimus, neque ante philosophiam patefactam, quae nuper inventa est, hac de re communis vita 70 dubitavit et, postea quam philoso; : ; ; ; : phia processit, nemo aliter philosophus sensit, in quo modo esset auctoritas. Dixi de Pythagora, de Democrito, de Socrate excepi de antiquis, praeter Xenophanem, neminem adjunxi veterem Academiam, Peripateticos, Stoicos unus dissenta Epicurus.
Quis est autem, quem non moveat clarissumis monumentis testata consignataque antiquitas? Calchantem augurem scribit Homerus longe optumum, eumque ducem classium : : : Dirimat tempus. Quid Quid esse Victorio deinde potest? Communis vita dubitavit. Fiat necne fiat. Ut, si inde facis ut facis,. Adliciat et trahat. Pithoeano, quod jam conjecerat Lambinus, et attrahat ; frustra : vide nos ad N. Tamen nihil necesse est, quod habent plures libri, at rationem, recipere neque istud at agnoscunt : Harl. Atque etiam ante hos Amphiaraus et Tiresias, non huiniles et obscuri, neque eorum similes, ut apud Enniuni est, fuisse ad Ilium 73 Amphilochus ; et : Qui 75 sententias sui quaestus causa fictas susci tant 5 sed clari et praestantes viri, qui avibus et signis admoniti fu76 Quorum de altero etiam apud inferos Hotura dicebant.
Quo in genere Marcios 80 quosdam fratris nobili loco natos apud majores nostros fuisse scriptum videmus. Omnino apud veteres, qui rerum potiebantur, idem auguria tenebant. Ut enim sapere, sic divinare regale ducebatur Testis est nostra civitas, in qua et reges augures, et postea privati eodem sacerdotio praediti, rempublicam religionum auctoritate rexerunt. Eaque divinationum ratio ne in barbaris quidem gentibus neglecta est: si quidem et in Gallia Druidae 83 sunt, e : Ducem classium fuisse ad Ilium.
Negligens sane oratio est ; tamen a Cicerone profectam credo. Nempe satis erat ab ejus solo dixisse sed quum Sed etiam firmat conjecturam ex parte cod. Auspiciorum credo scwwtia. Fictas suscitant sententias. Futura dicebant. Umbrarum v. Manutius, ex Iliad. Testis est nostra civitas. Persis augurantur et divinant Magi, qui congregantur in fano commentandi causa atque inter se colloquendi quod etiam idem S4 vos quondam fa cere Nonis solebatis. Nec quisquam rex Persarum potest esse, qui non ante magorum disciplinam scientiamque perceperit. Licet autem videre et genera quaedam et nationes buie scientiae deditas.
Telmessus in Caria est, qua in urbe excellit haruspicum disciplina: itemque Elis 85 babet, Iamidarum imam, in Peloponneso familias duas certas : alteram Clytidarum, haruspicinae nobilitate praestantis. In Syria Chaldaei cognitione astrorum sollertiaque ingeniorum anEtruria autem de coelo tacta scientissume animacltecellunt. Quocirca bene apud majores nostros senatus tum, quum florebat imperium, decrevit, ut de prin86 singulis Etruriae populis in disciplinam tracipimi filiis sex : Testis est diuturna.
Quod etiam idem vos. Familias duas certas. Ut de principum filiis sex singulis Etruriae populis in disciplinam traderentur. Maximus 1. Quum vero tanto in honore eam spectasse, artem apud Etruscos esse intelligerent ; neque enim eam artem quae " scientissime" coleretur, infimis atque egenis hominibus arbitror demandatam fuisse ; decrevit senatus, ita uti par erat, ut etiam principum filii nobilissimam artem edocendi deligerentur. At quid ex vero, multis argumentis ab aliis nondum occupatis adductus, in eam sententiam venio, necessario h.
Romanorum principum filios intelligendos esse. Primum enim, in gente decreto evenit? Id quidem in silentio auctorum possumus nos nonnisi suspicari. Sed fieri potuit ut isti oblati discipuli ab Etruscis non reciperentur ; potuerunt Etrusci haruspices nolle artem suam artisque lucrum ad Etruscorum piane haruspicinae adsenatum Romanum ultro atque gratuito arti hono- transire 5 potuerunt negare etiam fas esse arcana sua cum externis communicari; et facilius esse po- lis Romanorum an Tuscorum principum filii fuerint, magna quaestio est.
Ego dicta, nihil attinebat, ratissimae decreto suo subvenire. Potnit autem, quum in Annalibus exstaret senatus decretum, tamen ejus eventus, in re praesertim : in oblivionem abisse. QuoQuum varias nationes divicirca. Est Quintus " laudator temporis acti. Apud majores nostros. Quod "apud" ad ipsum Ropraecipue pertinebat nec nisi absurde dicere potuit Cicero, id senatus decretimi, quo tantummodo extera natio afficeretur, "apud majores" factum. Profecto hoc nisi de Romano imperio intelligi non potest.
Potest autem in his verbis causa inesse, cur potuerit respublica tot adolescentium nobilium opera carere. Sed potius, opinor, ad rem majores istos fiebat, id manum populum : augendam faciunt quomodo etiam Valerius intelligebat ; quasi dixisdecrevit, ut de principum filiis, set et tum decrevit, quum, fiorente imperio, jam principes opulentissimi : facti erant. Si De 0. Quaerat quis, cur populis, potius quam haruspicibus qui maxime per singulos populos scientia artis praestabant?
At recte populis: nempe erant, opinor, isti adolescentes quodammodo publicae committendi fidei. Sed non ab re erit hic etiam Valerii consentientem interpretationem ante oculos lectoris ponere " Tantum autem studium antiquis, non solum observandae sed etiam amplificandae : — religionis fuit, ut e florentissima tum et opulentissima ci vitate decem principum filii singulis Etruriae populis percipiendae sacrorum disciplinae gratia traderentur.
Jam vero ex Limi loco, quem item attulit Davisius ix. Ac mihi quidem videntur e locis quoque ipsis, qui signiticationibus a quibusque incolebantur, divinationum opportunitates esse 90 ductae. Ut enim Aegyptii, ut Babylonii in camporum patentium aequoribus habitantes, quum ex terra nihil emineret quod contemplationi coeli officere posset, omnem curam in siderum Etrusci autem, quod religione imbuti, cognitione posuerunt. Sed non ego arbitror aeque faciles Etruscos fuisse ad artem suam atque ad literas comnmnicandas.
Ac sententiam meam rationesque sentenAlteram partem tuentiae exposui. Ne ars tanta. A religionis auctoritate. Infra Harl. Studiosius et crebrius. Vvojiebant conjecit Jortinus Mise. Vossianus prima manu. M dicere, verba ipsa prudenter a majoribus posita 90 Ut tu solcs declarant quia enim ostendunt, portendunt, monstrant, praedicunt ostenta, portenta, monstra, prodigia dicuntur.
Ara: ; bcs autem, et Phryges, et Cilices, quod pastu pecudum maxumc utuntur, campos et montis hieme et aestate peragrantes, propterea facilius cantus avium et volatus notaverunt eadernque et Pisidiae causa fuit ethuic nostrae Umbriae. Tum Caria tota, praecipueque Telmesses quos ante dixi, quod agros uberrumos maxumeque fertilis incolunt, in quibus multa propter fecunditatem fingi gignique possunt, in ostentis animadvertendis : diligentes fuerunt. Quis vero non videt in optuma quaque republica plurimum auspicia et reliqua divinandi genera valuisse?
Quis rex umquam fuit, quis populus, qui non uteretur praedictione divina 97? Omitto nostros, agunt, nihil sine auspiciis, dum " habent auspicia. Externa videamus. Conceptu et satu. Nani neque vox satu trita librariis fuit, et facile, ut in homoeoteleuto, lacuna potuit Bene autem monuit fieri. Ut Nihil sine extis. Nihil sine auspiciis, dum habent auspicia. Internrcfor autem, dum jus auspiciorum habent. Nam, quod unus Davisii co- dex, ut in geminata voce, illa dum habent auspicia omittit, levis sane His autem verbis reciista res est. Quod vero in aliis codicibus legitur, id quod etiam editum est, nihil sine auspiciis domi habent.
Auspicia externa videamus ; nempe, quum, auspicia habere quid esset, non intelligeret librarius, su- perioris loci sensum sequutus est, e. Nihil publice sine auspiciis nec domi nec militiae gerebatur. Lycurgus quidem, qui Lacedaemoniorum rempublicam temperavit, leges suas auctoriquas quum vellet Lysantate Apollinis Delphici confirmavit der 1 commutare, eadem est prohibitus religione. Atque etiam qui praeerant Lacedaemoniis, non contenti vigilantibus curis, 2 in Pasipbaae fano, quod est in agro propter urbem, somniandi 4 3 causa excubabant , quia vera quietis oracula ducebant.
Ad senatus decemviros ad libros ire nostra jam redeo. Quoties : Nam et quum duo visi soles essent, et quum tres lu? Quid ea, quae nuper reperta sunt? Libros autem intellige Sibyllae. Quum coelum discessisse visum Quid 1 haruspicum ars nonne divina? Quietis oracula. At insequenti capite eamdem quaestionem aterum ponit, eo utique Consilio, ut, his levioribus rebus quasi per correctioiaem sublatis, majores afferat est, : Quoties senatus decemviros ad libros ire jussit?
Nam et quum. Nempe est quoddam zeugma a posteriori at nihil piane necesse est, geminata voce scribere aut cum Hottingero delata : delata etiam t aut, quod vult Goerenzius, delatum : delata etiam, etsi hic etiam in cod. Geminus est Sallustii locus, Catti. Cumis Apollo sudavit, Capuae Victoria? Tallii illa : ritatemque hujus ordinis. Et utique quod etiam C. Caesaris auctoritas ita memoretur, id quod maxime Lambinum eo impulisse arbitror ut lacunosum locum et ne illud mireris, supplemento egere crederet, cf. Caesaris, summoque consenmilitum veteranorum, qui ejus auctoritatem sequuti,Yeiipublicae praesidio sunt et fuerunt, a gravissimis periculis populus Romanus defensus defendatur.
Addas lectioinfra e. Quibus omnibus satis lectionem arbitror munitam. Simul, transpositione illa Davisii non probata, qua illud Quantis paruit? Fluvius Atratus. Hoc nempe ipse ultro hariolatur; nam piane incognitus est iste fluvius Atratus. Attrachum, secundus Attractum. Moseri Atracus ; 1. Denique, fluxit ablativum id quod quodammodo serus, il in loco fatetur responsivo ii. Tusculi aedes Castoris et Pollucis, Romaeque Pietatis?
Nonne ea responderunt, quae evenerunt, et in Sibyllae et haruspices libris eaedem repertae praedictiones sunt? Quoties senatus decemviros ad libros ire jussit? Caetis in rebus quamque saepe responsis haruspicum paruit ciliae Q. Idem contra ostenta nihil disputat, exponitque initio belli Marsici et deorum simulacra sudavisse, et sanguinem fluxisse, et discessisse coelum, et ex occulto auditas esse voces quae pericula belli nuntiarent, et Lanuvii clypeos, quod haruspicibus tristissumum visum esset, a muribus esse derosos.
Tum insolenter. Et recte monet Orell. Junonis Sospitae. Junonis e cod. Scripsit autem Moserus, monente Herelio, quid? Atqui non proxime eadem con- — 6. Corti us apud Sallust. F 2 Lacus Albanus. Veientes bello fessi legatos ad senatum misissent, tum ex his quidam dixisse dicitur, non omnia illuni transfugam ausum esse 1G senati!
Saepe etiam et in proeliis Fauni auditi et in rebus turbidis veridicae voces ex occulto missae esse dicuntur cujus generis duo sunt ex multis exempla, sed maxuma. Nani non multo ante urbem captam exaudita 18 vox est a luco Vestae, qui a Palati radice in Novam Viam devexus est, " Ut muri et portae reficerentur futurum esse, nisi provisum esset, ut Roma caperetur.
Neque solum deorum voces Pythagorei observitaverunt, sed etiam hominum, quae vocant omina: quae majores nostri quia valere censebant, idcirco omnibus rebus agendis, Quod honnm, faustum, felix, fortunatumque esset , praefabantur rebusque divinis, quae pub: : Infra dedit Orell. Senatu dicere. Ita autem scripsi ex Harl. Exaudita vox. Davisius expiatum, collato Liv. Sue piena. Nempe Et a nostris majoribus judicaUtique qui optimum judicium Explicatum est.
Con- a monen- do. Atque ego exempla ominum nota proferam. Mi pater, inquit, Persa periti. Flaccum, flaminem Martialem, ego audivi quum diceret, Caeciliam Metelli, quum vellet sororis suae filiam in matrimonium collocare, exisse in quoddam sacellum ominis capiendi causa; quod fieri more veterum solebat. Quum virgo staret, et Caecilia in sella sederet, neque diu ulla vox exstitisset 30 puellam defatigatam petisse a matertera, ut sibi concederet, paulisper ut in ejus sella re31 quiesceret illam autem dixisse, Vero , mea puella, tibi conomen res consequuta est cedo meas sedis quod ipsa enim brevi mortua est virgo autem nupsit cui Caecilia nupta fuerat.
Haec posse contemni, vel etiam rideri, praeclare intellego sed : ; : , : : : ; : Vide ad Faverent linguis. Bonis nominibus eligebanVide, monente Davisio, Lips. Ut primus miles fiat bono no- mine. Vide de hoc more Scholium luculentum apud ad Orat. Suetiam Harl. De praepositione autem ad, vide ad e. Victorii: accedit Harl. Accipio, inquit, m. Davisius Acc. Vox set, frustra. Dav r exis- sive consulto, sive non, defetigatam. Vero, mea puella. Quid de auguribus loquar? Tibi App. Clau32 augurio, dius augur consuli nuntiavit, addubitato Salutis bellum domesticum triste ac turbulentum fore quod paucis post mensibus exortum paucioribus a te est diebus oppressum.
Cui quidem auguri vehementer adsentior: solus enim multorum 33 annorum memoria, non decantandi augurii, sed divinandi te: quem irridebant collegae tui, eumque tum Quibus tum Soranum augurem esse dicebant. Quid rere, nibil esse in enim in pastoribus illis, ; : est ilio auspicio divinius, potissumum auctore quod apud te in Mario 41 est? Hic Jovis altisoni subito pinnata satelles, Arboris e trunco, serpentis saucia morsu, Subicit n ipsa feris transfigens unguibus Salutis augurio.
Vide Torrentium ad Sueton. Decantandi augurii. Tum augurem. Aut scientia. Neque enim in pastoribus illis. Religionis simulacra. Disertam neglegentiam reddiContinuo se ipse interpretatur dit. Nihil esse in auspiciis. Apud te in Mario. Marii res persequutus est. Unus amplius versus apud Nostrum exstat de Leg. Adde quod potest aliquo modo huc respicere quod infra est, Abjicit efflantem. Hanc ubi praepetibus pinnis lapsuque volantem Conspexit Marius, divini numinis augur, Faustaque signa suae laudis reditusque notavit ; Partibus intonuit coeli pater ipse sinistris.
Sic aquilae clarum firmavit 45 Juppiter omen. Semianimum Quem ille Romuli auguratus pastoralis, non urba4G nec fictus ad opiniones imperitorutn, sed a certis acceptus, et posteris traditus. Atque nus fuit ; Curantes magna cum 47 cura, concupientes Regni, dant operam simul auspicio augurioque. Hinc Remus auspicio se devovet, atque secundam avem servat 43 At Romulu' pulcher in alto Solus. Quaerit Aventino 49 servans genus altivolantum. Certabant urbem Romamne Remamne 50 vocarent.
Omnibu' M cura viris, uter esset induperator Exspectant, veluti consul quum mittere signum : Varia graviter cervice micantem. Firmavit Juppiter omen. Sed a certis acceptus. Solus avem servat. At Romulu. Romamne Remamne. Sed non frustra monet Moserus, non de ista re quaeri, sed quomodo novam urbem 1 : Adfligit in unda. Omnibu" cura viris. Volt, omnes Quum inox Interea sol albu' 53 recessit in infera noctis. Exin candida se radiis dedit icta 54 foras lux Et sinml ex alto longe pulcherruma praepes Laeva volavit avis simul aureus exoritur sol.
Cedunt ter quatuor 55 de coelo corpora sancta Avium, praepetibus sese pulchrisque locis dant. Conspicit inde sibi data Romulus esse priora, Auspicio regni stabilitaque i6 scamna solumque.
Sed unde huc Si nihil queam modo fieri ea quae commemoravi doceam, parumne Epicuro Carneadive respondeam? Quid, si etiam ratio exstat artificio58 sae praesensionis facilis, divinae autem paulo obscurior? Quae enim extis, quae fulgoribus 69 quae portentis, quae astris praesentiuntur, haec notata sunt observatione diuturna. Adfert autem vetustas omnibus in rebus longinqua observatione incredibilem scientiam quae potest esse etiam sine motu atque impulsu deorum, quum, quid ex quoque eveniat et quid quamque rem significet, crebra animadversione perspectum est.
Altera divinatio est naturalis, ut ante dixi quae physica 60 disputandi subtilitate referenda est ad naturam deorum, a qua f ut doctissumis sapientissumisque placuit, baustos 61 animos et , : ; Atque Jungendum ore timebat Rebus. Quamquam dedit Moserus cum nuperrimoEnnii editore, idquod olim etiam Turnebo et cuit, ora tenebat Lambino piarebus, monens ille quidem, hanc non sola Turnebi conjectura niti lectionem, sed jam in codd. Sol albu' recessit. Junge cum supe- Addidi autem copulam cum Mosero, e libro Ciofani.
Eodem redeat oratio. Divinae autem. Merula: nimirum infra est, " simul aureus exoritur sol. Se radiis dedit icta foras lux. Pythagoram Pythagoreosque Cedunt ter quatuor. Sic etiam Avium proximo p. Sed divino- vigilantes 63 animi vitae necessitatibus serviunt, dijunguntque se a societate Rarum est quoddam genus divina, vinculis corporis impediti.
G4 eorum, qui se a corpore avocent , et ad divinarum rerum 65 studio rapiantur. Et quidem idem primus defectionem solis, quae Astyage regnante facta est, praedixisse fertur. Multa medici, multa gubernatores, agricolae etiam multa 72 divinationem voco ne illam praesentiunt: sed nullam eorum ; quidem, qua ab Anaximandro physico moniti Lacedaemonii 73 armatique in agro excubasunt ut urbem et tecta linquerent rent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum, quum et urbs tota cor74 ruit, et ex monte Taygeto extrema montis quasi puppis Vigilantes animi.
Qui i. Cura Cura omnique studio. Non plus Si ei commodum esset. Aquar uni fiuxiones. De vocamus. Atheniensi Solone. Id est providentis. Extrema montis quasi-puppis.
Dieta antes da colonoscopia
Nec vero umquam animus hominis naturaliter divinat, nisi 77 corquum ita solutus est et vacuus, ut ei piane nihil sit cum pore quod aut vatibus contingit aut dormienti bus. Itaque ea duo genera a Dicaearcho probantur et, ut dixi, a Cratippo Si propterea quod ea proficiscimtur a natura ; sint nostro. Sed tione putant, multa tollunt quibus vitae ratio quoniam dant 80 aliquid, idque non parvum, yaticinationes 8l cum somniis ; nihil est quod cum bis magnopere pugnemus praesertim quum sint, qui omnino nullam divinationem proErgo et ii, quorum animi, spretis corporibus, evolant bent 82 atque excurrunt foras, ardore aliquo infiammati atque incitati, cernunt illa profecto quae vaticinantes praenuntiant ; multisque rebus inflammantur tales animi, qui corporibus non inhaerent; ut ii qui sono quodam vocura et Phrygiis 83 cantibus incitantur.
Multos nemora silvaeque, multos amnes aut maria commovent quorum furibunda mens videt ante multo 84, quae sunt futura. Quo de genere illa sunt, ; : ;. Ad rem Plin. Nec Pherecydes quidem. Qui quum vidisset haustam aquam—. Pro qui autem dedit Dav. Ut ei piane nihil sit cum corpore. Quum sint qui Davisius. Phrygiis cantibus. Videt ante inulto. Nihil esse in—. Quoniam dant aliquid. Quo judicio 61 Lacedaemonia Mulier, furiarum una, adveniet.
Marcius et Publicius vates cecinisse dicuntur: quo de genere Apollinis operta 87 prolata sunt.
Credo etiam anhe88 litus quosdam fuisse terrarum, quibus inflatae mentes oracula Similiter funderent. Atque haec quidem vatium 89 ratio est: nec dissimilis sane somniorum. Nam quae vigilantibus accidunt vatibus, eadem nobis dormientibus : viget enim animus in somnis, liberque 90 est sensibus atque ab omni impeditione curarum, jacente et mortuo paene corpore. Qui quia vixit ab omni aeternitate versatusque est cum innumerabilibus animis, omnia, quae in natura rerum sunt, videt; si modo temperatis escis modicisque potionibus ita est adfectus 91 , ut sopito corpore ipse vigilet.
Haec somniantis est divinatio. Hic magna quaedam exoritur, neque ea naturalis sed artificiosa, somniorum Antiplionis 92 interpretatio num Nam Da- S. Victoris et avantibus ; Gulielmius evantibus. Apollinis operta. Contulit Orell. Credo etiam anheiitus Re. Goerenzii quatuor probatiores apud Nostrum de Leg. Liberque est sensibus atque ab omni impeditione curarum.
In eo autem nolui eumdem virum doctissimum sequi, quod etiam geminandara praepositionem putavit, a sensibus atque ab Si Vira autem interpretatur Hotting. Eodemque modo Sunt enim explanatores. Intellige autem explana- tores oraculorum et vaticinationum. Natura divina genuisset. Sed distinguendum videtur, quonam modo non placet Stoicis, singulis jecorum fissis aut avium cantibus interesse deum neque enim decorimi est, nec diis dignum, nec fieri ullo pacto potesti sed ita a principio inchoatum esse mundum, ut certis rebus certa signa praecurrerent, alia in extis, alia in avibus, alia in fulgoribus, alia in ostentis, alia in stellis, Ea quialia in somniantium visis, alia in furentium vocibus.
Male conjecta maleque interpretata, falsa sunt, non rerum vitio, sed. Consectionis ejus fabricam. At male locum cepit Davisius, quum consectionibus rescribendum censeret. Quae a te secundo libro est expl. Delevit 1. Stabit illud quidem.